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What Is the Difference Between Plenum and Riser Cable?



What Is the Difference Between Plenum and Riser Cable

Are you looking to buy the next ethernet cables but unable to differentiate between the plenum and the riser cables? Or you are a novice and can’t decide whether Cat6 Plenum is better for you or Cat6 Riser? You need not worry as we have got you covered.

Before going into the difference, let’s first know what plenum and riser cables are. 

What Is Plenum Cable?

A cable bearing a CMP mark on the outer surface of its jacket is characterized as a plenum cable. In case you are wondering, let us tell you that CMP stands for Communications Multipurpose Cable, Plenum, and it is the highest rating for jacket material for ethernet cables. These cables are meant for installation in the plenum spaces of the buildings. Plenum spaces are empty spaces between the ceilings or the floors of the buildings. These spaces are meant to facilitate air circulation for air conditioning and heating systems. These spaces are at greater risk of fire eruption, and this is where a plenum-rated comes in handy. 


The plenum cables are manufactured using supreme quality polyvinyl chloride. In case of fire eruption, these cables halt fire progression because of their fire-retardant properties. Also, when exposed to fire, these cables emit no smoke or dangerous gases. Because of the thick jacket, these cables provide top-notch protection against alien crosstalk, near-end crosstalk, and electromagnetic interference thus, keeping the integrity of your data intact. These cables are also UV resistant. The following types of plenum cables are available in the market right now: Cat5e Plenum, Cat6 Plenum, and Cat6a Plenum.

These cables, too, meet all types of industry standards, including FCC, CE, CSE, ISO/IES, and are in compliance with RoHS and TIA/EIA. 

What is Riser Cable?

A riser ethernet cable is identified by the CMR market printed on the outer surface of its jacket – CMR here stands for Communications Multipurpose Cable, Riser. The CMR-rated ethernet cables are also made using fine-quality polyvinyl chloride. As their name suggests, these cables are meant for installation in the riser or vertical spaces of the buildings.

Riser-rated cables also have fire retardant properties, and they too halt fire progression just like their plenum counterparts. When it comes to protection against electromagnetic interference, near-end crosstalk, and alien crosstalk, riser-rated have excellent protection against them. They, too, keep the integrity of your data intact. You can find the following types of riser cables in the market: Cat5e Riser, Cat6 Riser, and Cat6a Riser

These cables, too, meet all types of industry standards, including FCC, CE, CSE, ISO/IES, and are in compliance with RoHS and TIA/EIA. 

Difference Between Plenum & Riser Cables

  1. Jacket Material: The main difference between the riser and plenum ethernet cables is that of jacket material. Plenum cables enjoy CMP ratings. It is the highest rating when it comes to ethernet jackets. These cables are made from the best quality polyvinyl chloride. Riser cables come with CMR ratings, and it is the second-best jacket ratings in the ethernet cable industry. Although riser-rated jackets are also made from good quality polyvinyl chloride, the same is not as fine as it is in CMP-rated cables. 
  2. Irreplaceable: You can use plenum cables as a replacement for riser cables for installation in the riser spaces. However, you can’t use riser ethernet cables as a replacement for plenum cables. 


As far as specifications are concerned, like data transfer rates and bandwidth capacities, both riser and plenum ethernet cables share the same properties. For instance, a Cat6 riser cable will have the same data transfer speed and bandwidth capacities as are possessed by the Cat6 plenum. 

Terms to Know when Choosing Plenum Vs Riser Cabling

When shopping for plenum or riser rated cables, here’s a quick rundown of acronyms and other words to be aware of:

Cables with the letters CL, CM, and CMG. Residential-grade or general-purpose cabling is referred to as this. In Riser Or Plenum Environments, It Is Not Suitable For Commercial Use.

CMR Cables are a type of cable. Communications Riser. Approved for use in stairwells.

CMP Cables are a type of cable used to connect Plenum on Communications Approved for use in plenums and risers.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing fires. The National Electrical Code was produced by this body.

NEC. The National Electrical Code (NEC) is a set of rules (NFPA 70). This guide is intended to establish a standard for electrical safety in residential, commercial, and industrial structures.

Plenum (CMP) Rated Cable VS Riser (CMR) Rated Cable

Plenum-rated cables are utilized in plenum spaces in business and residential buildings. These plenum spaces are found between the ceiling and the floor above it (drop ceiling), and they serve as conduits for heated/cooled or return airflows.

Plenum cables have a higher fire rating and are built with a low-smoke PVC or a fluorinated ethylene polymer fire-retardant plastic jacket (FEP).

In non-plenum regions, riser-rated wires run between floors through cable risers or elevator shafts. In a vertical burn test, these cables must also self-extinguish and prevent the flame from moving up the cable.

Riser cables are not subject to the same fire regulations as plenum cables. As a result, plenum cables can replace riser cables in plenum spaces, whereas riser cables cannot replace plenum cables.

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What Technical Issues can be Solved at a Phone Repair Store?



Phone Repair Store

There are minor issues like battery changing, software updating, factory restoration, and cleaning the device with a liquid cleaner that mobile users can fix because they do not require any technical education. But the issues that will be discussed in this article can be solved by technicians at a proper phone repair store.

Phone Repair Store Solving Technical and Mechanical Issues

A great way of knowing which mechanical and technical issues the stores are offering that you require is to visit the service or repair page on the website. You need to confirm if the repair shop provides the repair services you want. Generally, the repair stores solve the following issues.

The Device Screen is Ruined

The broken screen of different devices is the most common issue that the repair stores’ mechanics have handled. The clients explained that they dropped their laptops, cell phones, tablets, computer screens, and Apple Watches, which caused the screen damage. The screens can crack from one side or are broken altogether.

Electronic Gadgets have Difficulty Charging

The repair technicians will look for three reasons for the device’s difficulty charging.

1.       There is an issue with the gadgets’ charge.

2.       Debris and dirt are stuck in the charging port, or the metal flap is bent.

3.       The electronic connection inside the device is faulty and busted.

Phone Wrecked By Water Damage

The second most common problem that technicians have to solve is that clients drop their devices in the water. If this scenario happens, the best resort is to take your Apple phone for repair in Columbia, Kentucky. The mechanics have the right tools to retrieve the phone from water damage.

Cell Phone Mechanics in Columbia Kentucky Fixing Mobile Heating up

The mobile repair technicians at stores like Gadget Defenders look into the following reasons; so that they can use the right methods to solve the issue;

1.       The device is internally damaged.

2.       There is the presence of a bug or Malware.

3.       The cell phone is not properly charging.

4.       The mobile camera has been used for a long.

5.       Screen brightness is high.

6.       Playing games with high graphics.

7.       Using the devices non-stop.

Reason for Quick Battery Exhaustion

Sometimes, the mobile users have many apps open in the background that they forgot to close. Closing these apps can solve the issue of quick battery exhaustion. If the issues are not resolved, there is an issue with either the charger or the mobile.

Trouble Shooting Mobile Operations

The mobile may often stop working when operating, or the functions don’t work. This can happen because memory is running out of RAM; there can be Malware or bug in the device.

Installed Applications are Unable to Function

The mobile users might experience that the installed apps have stopped working. There can be two reasons for applications being unable to function; these include the apps that are not up to date and have to be updated from the application store, and the device software is outdated.

Electronic Gadget Giving Delayed Responses

When the mobile is being used for a longer time, the devices heat up, and this causes delayed functional responses. The best thing to do is let the gadget cool down and take it to a repair shop.

Recovering Saved Data is Difficult

Many times, you cannot recover the data saved on your backup file. You might have forgotten the password, or the application is not working. The repair stores have special software to recover the data.

Technicians can solve these technical and mechanical issues at a phone repair store.

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How to Recover Data from Damaged Hard Drive?



Damaged Hard Drive

Losing data from your hard drive can be very difficult to deal with. Modern hard drives have a lot of storage capability and typically hold a significant amount of information. Like any other device, hard drives are susceptible to damage or failure which can lead to data loss.

But, the good thing is that there are ways to recover data from damaged hard drives. In this blog post, we will share a few methods to facilitate data recovery from damaged hard drives. But, before that, let’s first understand the symptoms that can help you pinpoint the exact nature of the damage.

Hard drives can suffer from physical or logical damage. Physical damage occurs due to factors like power surges, water spillage, fire, etc. On the other hand, logical damage is caused by factors like file system corruption, bad sectors, etc. It’s important to identify the type of damage as it will determine the course of action for data recovery.

If you suspect physical damage to the hard drive then it’s best to seek professional help as they have specialized tools and equipment to carry out repairs and perform data recovery on damaged Hard disk drive.

How to Know When the Hard Drive is Damaged?

The type and extent of damage to a hard drive will dictate the steps required to deal with data loss. The three most common types of damage are physical, logical, and firmware. Physical damage occurs when the hard drive is dropped or shaken, causing the heads that read and write data to become misaligned. This can result in sectors becoming unreadable or corrupted. 

Firmware damage is caused by a corrupt BIOS or malfunctioning controller chip, preventing the hard drive from initializing properly. Once the type of damage has been identified, the next step is to determine the extent of the problem. 

  1. Strange Sounds: If you are hearing strange noises coming from your hard drive, it is important to take action immediately. These sounds are often an indication that the disk drive is physically damaged. As a result, all data stored on the drive is at risk of being lost. If you suspect that your hard drive is damaged, the best course of action is to contact a professional data recovery service. These services specialize in retrieving data from damaged drives, and they will be able to assess the extent of the damage and recommend the best course of action. In many cases, they will be able to successfully recover all of your data. However, it is important to act quickly, as the longer you wait, the greater the risk that your data will be lost forever.
  2. Partial Data Loss: If you find that a few files you’ve previously saved are no longer accessible on your hard drive, this could be a sign of physical damage. There are several possible causes for this issue. One possibility is that your drive was infected with a virus, which corrupted the files. Another possibility is that the heads that read and write data on the disk platters are damaged, preventing access to the data.
  3. Slow Performance: If you’re noticing that it’s taking longer than usual to access the folders and files on your computer’s hard drive, it could be a sign that the drive is physically damaged. While this doesn’t necessarily mean that all of your data is lost, it’s important to back up your files as soon as possible, just to be safe. 
  1. Hard Drive Sound: If you try to access your hard drive and you cannot hear any sound coming from the device, it is likely that the drive has failed and all of the data stored on it is lost. While this can be a frustrating experience, there are some things you can do to try and recover your data. First, you should check to see if the hard drive is properly connected to your computer. If everything appears to be plugged in correctly, you may need to replace the hard drive. However, if you have a backup of your data, you should be able to restore your files from the backup. If you have a lot of important data stored on your hard drive, it may be worth paying for a professional data recovery service.

What are the causes of Hard Disk Drive Damage?

When a hard drive is damaged, the consequences can be serious. The loss of data can lead to financial losses, missed opportunities, and a feeling of frustration. While it is possible to recover data from a damaged hard drive, it is often costly and time-consuming. To avoid these problems, it is important to understand the common causes of hard drive damage.

One of the most common causes of hard drive damage is exposure to dust and sunlight. When dust particles accumulate on the surface of the drive, they can cause the disk to spin erratically. The friction between the dust and the disk can also generate heat, which can lead to mechanical failure. In addition, sunlight can cause the disk platters to expand and contract, which can eventually lead to cracks and data loss.

Electrical and mechanical failure are another common reason for hard drive damage. Most hard drives contain spinning disks that are powered by electric motors. If the drive is jarred or dropped, the disks can spin out of control and cause severe damage. In addition, electrical components can fail due to power surges or voltage fluctuations. These problems can destroy data or render the drive inoperable.

Logical corruption occurs when the hard drive is unable to read or write data correctly. This can be caused by a software error, a virus, or a physical problem with the hard drive. 

Negligent usage refers to any type of careless handling that can damage the hard drive. This includes dropping the computer, jarring it while it is running, or exposing it to extreme temperatures. In some cases, even simply removing the hard drive without proper precautions can damage it. 

While these are some of the most common reasons for hard drive damage, there are many other potential causes. If you suspect that your hard drive is damaged, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. Attempting to repair the hard drive yourself could cause further damage and lead to data loss.

Regardless of the type of damage, it is always recommended to consult a professional data recovery expert for your damaged hard drive recovery. This will ensure that you will get your data back in the quickest and most secure manner. Trying to resolve the issue on your own may lead to further damage or even permanent loss of data. A professional data recovery expert will be able to assess the extent of the damage and recommend the best course of action. In some cases, data can be recovered through simple troubleshooting techniques. However, in other cases, more extensive work may be required. In either case, a professional data recovery expert will be able to get your data back quickly and securely.

How to Recover Data from Damaged Drive?

Data loss is a serious issue that can have far-reaching consequences. While there are many causes of data loss, one of the most common is damage to a hard drive. When a hard drive is damaged, it can be difficult or impossible to access the data stored on it. As a result, it is essential to take precautions to prevent data loss. 

The best way to do this is to create a backup of your data. This way, even if your hard drive is damaged, you will still have a copy of your data. However, if you do find yourself in a situation where you have lost data, Stellar can help you recover it. 

Stellar has a team of experienced professionals who are experts in data recovery. They can help you recover your data from any type of data loss situation, including hard drive damage. The data recovery cost varies depending upon the type of damage and complexity to recover data. So, if you find yourself in a situation where you have lost data, don’t hesitate to contact Stellar data recovery services. 

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Things to know before trading options using technical analysis



technical analysis

Options are a financial trading contract that allows the buyer to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price on or before a specified date. Options can be used as either directional trades, in which you speculate on whether the market will rise or fall or non-directional trades, in which you don’t care about what direction the market moves, only that it does move.

The most popular indicators used by UK traders

Some of the most popular indicators used in technical analysis are moving averages, support and resistance levels, and fibonacci retracement levels.

Moving averages

Moving averages can help you determine the overall trend of a stock or market, while support and resistance levels can help you identify potential entry points or exit positions.

Support and resistance levels

Support and resistance levels are created when the market starts to move in a specific direction and then stalls or reverses. These levels can be used to identify potential entry or exit points.

Fibonacci retracement levels

Fibonacci retracement levels are used to identify possible reversals in price trends based on historical movements, and they can be instrumental when trading options with a limited time frame.

How to use technical analysis when trading options?

When using technical analysis to trade options, you will first need to identify the overall trend of the underlying asset, which traders can do by using moving averages or other trend-following indicators.

Once you have identified the overall trend, you can start looking for entry points using support and resistance levels or Fibonacci retracement levels. It is important to remember that no matter which technical indicators you use, they should always be used with other forms of analysis, such as fundamental analysis, to ensure that you make informed trading decisions.

When using technical analysis to trade options, it is also essential to watch the option’s implied volatility. Implied volatility measures how much the market expects the underlying asset’s price to move over the life of the option contract.

If the markets expect a big move in the underlying asset’s price, then the options will have higher premiums and vice versa. Options with higher implied volatility will have higher premiums because there is a greater chance that these options will end up in the money at expiration.

Conversely, options with lower implied volatility will have lower premiums because there is a lower chance that these options will end up in the money at expiration.

What are some things to keep in mind when using technical analysis?

  • No one perfect indicator or combination of indicators will consistently produce accurate results.
  • Technical analysis is best used as part of a broader trading strategy that includes other important factors such as fundamental analysis and risk management.
  • Be aware of how various indicators react to news events, as this can significantly impact the market and your trading results.
  • As with all types of trading, it is essential to do your research and backtest any strategy you plan to use before putting real money on the line.

The risks of using technical analysis when trading options

While technical analysis can be a helpful trading tool in your options trading arsenal, it’s important to remember that it’s not always accurate. In addition, different indicators can produce conflicting signals, so it’s essential to understand how to interpret them correctly

Also, remember that technical analysis is just one part of a broader trading strategy. It would help if you also considered fundamental factors such as the underlying asset’s price history and macroeconomic conditions before making any trades

Last but not least, don’t forget to factor in risk management. No matter how good your technical analysis trading skills are, there’s always the potential for loss when trading options. Using stop-loss orders and other risk management techniques can help limit your losses and protect your capital.


If you are interested in trading options in the UK using technical analysis, many valuable resources online can help you get started. Novice traders and experienced investors looking for new strategies should learn about technical analysis and contact an online broker such as Saxo Bank to develop a comprehensive trading plan.

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